Spinal fusionA spinal fusion is a surgery to weld together two vertebrae, the bones that make up the spine.
Anterior spinal fusionA fusion can be performed on a smaller portion of the spine from the side of the body. This approach leaves a less noticeable scar for the patient and preserves more flexibility of the spine after surgery. Only a select amount of curves can be corrected with this technique.
Lumbar spinal stenosisThis surgery is done to relieve pressure on the nerve roots. This can help reduce pain, numbness, and weakness in your legs.
Lumbar decompression A decompression surgery involves removing a small portion of the bone over the nerve root and/or disc material from under the nerve root to relieve pinching of the nerve and provide more room for the nerve to heal. The most common types of decompression surgery are microdiscectomy and laminectomy.
Laminectomy In this type of lumbar decompression surgery the part removed is called the lamina; the part removed is above and below a pinched nerve. In some cases, only a portion of the lamina is removed from the vertebra.
Intervertebral discectomyIntervertebral discs are located between each backbone (vertebra). When damaged, these discs can put pressure on nerves as they leave the spinal cord. An intervertebral discectomy is a back surgery that removes all or part of these discs. The procedure is most often done on lumbar discs (located in the lower back). It may also be done on cervical discs in the neck.
Cervical spine surgeryCervical spine surgery is generally performed on an elective basis to treat either nerve/spinal cord impingement (decompression surgery) or spinal instability (fusion surgery). The two procedures are often combined, as a decompression may de-stabilize the spine and create the need for fusion to add stability. Spinal instrumentation (such as a small plate) can also be used to help add stability to the spinal construct.
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplastyThese are performed in cases of spinal fractures. When a vertebra fractures, it can put pressure on surrounding nerves which can cause intense pain and disability. The bones may be repaired with these procedures.
In vertebroplasty, an acrylic cement is injected into a fractured and collapsed vertebra (spinal bone). The cement strengthens the bone and decreases pain from the fracture.
In kyphoplasty, a balloon is used to create a cavity to inject the cement into. This procedure is designed to relieve pain and can also improve spinal deformities from the fractures.